Digital SAT Practice: Writing/Verb Choice Questions #2

1. The mother of Dr. Haddock was Abigail Webster, a favorite sister of Ezekiel and Daniel Webster, who, with Sarah, ______ the only children of the Hon. Ebenezer Webster by his second wife, Abigail Eastman, who survived her husband and all her daughters.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. was
B. were
C. are
D. is

2. Mr. Layard in excavating beneath the great pyramid at Nimroud, had penetrated a mass of masonry, within which he had discovered the tomb and statue of Sardanapalus, accompanied by full annals of the monarch’s reign engraved on the walls! He had also found tablets of all sorts, all of them being historical, but the crowning discovery he _____________________

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. had yet to describe.
B. still has to describe.
C. yet describes.
D. hadn’t yet to describe.

3. It is indeed a painful or rather a terrible condition in which Heine now is and _________ for the past year; though the paralysis has made no progress, it has at least experienced no alleviation. He has now lain near two years in bed, and during that time has not seen a tree nor a speck of the blue sky.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. were
B. was
C. has been
D. will be

4. Dr. Otto Zirckel has just published at Berlin a volume called “Sketches from and concerning the United States,” which has some curious peculiarities to the eyes of an American. It is intended as a guide for Germans who wish either _________________ to this country or to send their money here for investment.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. to have emigrated
B. to emigrate
C. emigration
D. emigrating

5. The omissions by Mr. Sparks—sometimes from carelessness, sometimes from ignorance, and sometimes from an indisposition to revive memories of old feuds, or to cover with disgrace names which should be dishonored—and his occasional verbal alteration of Washington’s letter, _________ that general satisfaction with which his edition of Washington would otherwise be regarded.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. prevents
B. has prevented
C. preventing
D. prevent

6. Bauer treats the political and religious parties of modern Germany with the same scornful satire and destructive analysis which __________ in his theological writings.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. appear
B. will appear
C. has appeared
D. appears

7. Dr. Laing, one of those restless English travelers who have printed books about the United States, _____ now a prominent personage in Australia, where he has been elected a member of the newly instituted Legislature, for the city of Sidney.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?

A. was
B. is
C. are
D. were

8. The first two volumes of Oehlenschlager’s Lebens Erinnerungen have appeared at Vienna, and ___________ more observation than anything else in the late movements in the German literature.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. attract
B. attracts
C. will attract
D. attracted

9. The character of Sir Roger de Coverley is a creation which, in its way, has never been surpassed; never perhaps __________ except by the Vicar of Wakefield.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?

A. equals
B. equaling
C. equal to
D. equaled

10. When the public understands how perfectly Parodi identifies herself with the emotions and passions she has to portray,—when they appreciate the immense variety of intonations with which she illustrates her characters, and the earnestness and intensity with which she _________her whole nature into all she does—then she will be hailed as the greatest artist ever on this continent, and one of the greatest in the world.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?

A. throw
B. throws
C. has thrown
D. can throw

  1. A. The subject of the verb is both Abigail Webster and her Sarah. This makes our subject plural. In addition, this passage is in the past tense, which makes B the best option since it is plural and in the past tense.
  2. A. The passage is primarily written in the past perfect, the tense which uses a helping verb like “has” or “had” along with the past participle of the verb. To continue this style, we should use answer option A. Answer option B is not in the past perfect as it uses the word “still”. Answer C does not use a helping verb. Answer D incorrectly uses the word not.
  3. C. Heine is currently in this bad condition and for the past year and up until this moment he “has been” in this condition. Option A is plural where our subject is singular. Option B implies that he was in this condition in the past but is not still in the condition, and option D put this into the future despite it being in the “past year”. This makes option C the best answer.
  4. B. Look for parallel structure within the sentence. The Germans may wish to do two things. The second thing is “to send”. We therefore need to match that with our choice “to emigrate”. This makes option B correct and all other options incorrect.
  5. D. Be careful in identifying the subject of the verb. Ask yourself, “what is it that is going to prevent the satisfaction?” In this case, it is the omissions all the way at the beginning of the passage. “Omissions” is plural and so the correct verb choice would be “prevent”. This makes option D correct and the others incorrect.
  6. A. Be careful in identifying the subject of the verb. Ask yourself, “what is it that we’re talking about appears in his theological writings?” It is the scornful satire and destructive analysis. This means that the subject of our verb is plural. Our verb must work with a plural subject eliminating options C and D. Option B is incorrectly in the future tense. This just leaves option A as the correct answer.
  7. B. Be careful in identifying the subject of the verb. Ask yourself, “who is a prominent personage?” it can’t be “the United States”. Because the U.S. is neither a person nor in Australia. The person is Dr. Laing. This means that we must pick a singular verb, eliminating options C and D. Since it is “now” we must pick the present tense option B and not the past tense option A.
  8. D. These first two volumes have done two things they have “appeared” and “attracted”. The second verb must match the tense of the first making option D correct and the other options incorrect.
  9. D. Make sure to maintain parallel structure. Sir Roger de Coverley has never been “surpassed” so then we must say he has also never been “equaled”. This makes option D correct and the others incorrect.
  10. B. Make sure to maintain parallel structure. People appreciate two things about Parodi: how she “illustrates” her character and how she “throws” her whole nature. Both verbs need to be in the present tense making option B correct and the other options incorrect.

DSAT Reading Words in Context Practice Questions #2

1. Up to this moment the young earl had stood still, as if spell-bound; but being now convinced that the spirit had fled, he pressed forward, and, ere many seconds, emerged from the brake. The full moon was rising as he ______________ and illuminating the glades and vistas, and the calmness and beauty of all around seemed at total variance with the fearful vision he had just witnessed.

Which of the following choices best completes the text with the most logical and precise phrase?
A. went from,
B. issued forth,
C. cropped up,
D. came across,

2. They walked on in silence, for the earl could not help dwelling upon the vision he had witnessed, and his companion appeared equally ____________ In this sort they descended the hill near Henry the Eighth’s Gate, and entered Thames Street.

Which of the following choices best completes the text with the most logical and precise word?
A. unconcerned.
B. worried.
C. abstracted.
D. alive.

3. Turning off on the left into the lower road, ________ around the north of the castle, and following the course of the river to Datchet, by which it was understood the royal cavalcade would make its approach, the procession arrived at an open space by the side of the river, where it came to a halt.

Which of the following choices best completes the text with the most logical and precise word?
A. dressing
B. skirting
C. avoiding
D. leaving

4. Presently the sound of trumpets smote his ear, and a numerous and splendid retinue was seen advancing, consisting of nobles, knights, esquires, and gentlemen, ranged according to their degrees, and all sumptuously ___________ in cloths of gold and silver, and velvets of various colors, richly embroidered.

Which of the following choices best completes the text with the most logical and precise word?
A. worn
B. addressed
C. redressed
D. appareled

5. The person who thus spoke then stepped forward, and threw a glance so full of significance at Anne Boleyn that she did not care to dispute the order, but, on the contrary, laughingly ______________ it.

Which of the following choices best completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?
A. railed to
B. railed against
C. acquiesced against
D. acquiesced to

6. The favor in which he stood with his royal master procured him admittance to his presence at all hours and at all seasons, and his influence, though seldom exerted, was very great. He was especially serviceable in turning aside the edge of the king’s displeasure, and more frequently exerted himself to _______ the storm than to raise it.

Which of the following choices best completes the text with the most logical and precise word?
A. allay
B. allow
C. align
D. stoke

7. He took her hand, and led her to the upper part of the chamber, where two chairs of state were set beneath a canopy of crimson velvet embroidered with the royal arms, and placed her in the seat hitherto allotted to the previous queen. A smile of triumph irradiated Anne’s lovely countenance at this ________________ nor was her satisfaction diminished as Henry turned to address the assemblage.

Which of the following choices best completes the text with the most logical and precise phrase?
A. show of force,
B. mark of distinction,
C. level of crime,
D. morbid scene,

8. This ghostly rider wore the antlered helmet described by Surrey, and seemed to be habited in a garb of deer-skins. Before him flew a large owl, and a couple of great black dogs ran beside him. Staring in _____________ wonder at the sight, the two youths watched the mysterious being scour a glade brightly illumined by the moon, until, reaching the pales marking the confines of the Home Park, he leaped them and disappeared.

Which of the following choices best completes the text with the most logical and precise word?
A. speechless
B. unspeakable
C. amazed
D. lonely

9. Before they reached the hill, at the end of the long avenue, a heavy thunderstorm came on, and the lightning, playing among the trees, seemed to reveal a thousand fantastic forms to their half-blinded gaze. Presently the rain began to descend in torrents, and compelled them to ___________beneath a large beech-tree.

Which of the following choices best completes the text with the most logical and precise phrase?
A. abide beneath
B. stay wet
C. align themselves
D. take refuge

10. A verdant path, partly beneath the trees, and partly on the side of the lake, led Wolsey to the forester’s hut. Constructed of wood and clay, with a thatched roof, green with moss, and half overgrown with ivy, the little building was in __________ keeping with the surrounding scenery.

Which of the following choices best completes the text with the most logical and precise word?
A. admiring
B. admirable
C. poor
D. abominable

  1. B. The young earl “emerged from the brake”. We are looking for a word that would fit the context of the sentence and describe his emerging. Answer option A does not fit the structure of the sentence as there is no further description of where he went from. Answer C implies something slowly sneaking up over time, which is not the proper in this context. Answer D does not mean “emerging” and is therefore incorrect. This only leaves answer option B, that he issued forth (meaning “emerged”).
  2. C. The earl is dwelling on the vision, not on his companion or on making conversation. He is distracted by what they have seen. His companion, then, is equally distracted. Abstracted is a synonym for distracted, making option C the best answer. Answer A is the opposite of the correct answer. Answer B is incorrect as there is no evidence the earl is worried, only that he is distracted and thinking about the vision. There is no discussion of them feeling or being alive or dead, making answer option D incorrect.
  3. B. Given that the blank is followed by the word “around” we must choose an answer that can be done “around the north of the castle”. A procession could not dress around a castle, nor could it avoid or leave around it. This leaves answer B as the correct answer. To “skirt around” means to go around the edges of something.
  4. D.  The context is describing what the gentlemen are wearing. This makes options B and C incorrect as they are both words that look similar to the word “dressed” but have different meanings. “Worn” does not fit the context of the sentence. This leaves answer option D. The men are “sumptuously appareled in cloths”. Appareled is a synonym for “dressed”.
  5. D. We see in the first part of the sentence that Anne is not going to dispute (go against) the order. The author then sets up a contrasting statement by saying “but, on the contrary”. We therefore need to pick an answer that means the opposite of “dispute”. To acquiesce means to give in. The appropriate preposition for acquiesce is “to”. This makes option D correct. You cannot acquiesce against something, making option C incorrect and options A and B would not show contrast with “dispute” since “to rail against” means to speak aggressively against something.
  6. A. We learn in the first sentence that this man is favored by the king and has great influence over the king. The second sentence shows us how the man uses that influence to turn “aside the edge of the king’s displeasure.” The final phrase sets up a contrast. Rather than raising the storm of anger he is more likely to subdue it. This is the meaning of the word “allay” (related to the word alleviate) which makes answer option A correct. Answer options B and D mean close to the opposite of the author’s intended meaning. Answer option C is incorrect as “align” is not something that can be done with storms or anger.
  7. B. Anne is taken to sit in the seat of the queen this is a good thing for Anne and elicits from her a “smile of triumph”, making options C and D incorrect. Option A is incorrect as there is no evidence that Henry has shown any force toward her. Instead, being sat in the queen’s chair is a “mark of distinction” setting her apart from anyone else who might be watching.
  8. A. The boys are watching a ghostly rider, which makes their wonder understandable. They are together and so option D doesn’t fit. Their wonder isn’t unspeakable, a word for things so horrible they can’t be said. “Amazed wonder” would be redundant. This leaves option A. They are speechless with wonder.
  9. D. Given the storm, the people need to find a safe place. They “take refuge” under a tree to escape the storm. They are not living beneath the tree, making option A incorrect. They would not want to stay wet, but rather, dry making option B incorrect. They are not aligning themselves with anything, making option C incorrect.
  10. B. We see that the house is beneath trees, and on the side of the lake. It is made of natural materials and therefore matches the scenery. This makes options C and D incorrect as they would imply that the house does not match the scenery. The house is not admiring, making option A incorrect.


    If you would like to expand your vocabulary by reading of the story of Anne, Henry, and ghostly riders, the whole book is available for free through Project Gutenberg:
    https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/2866/pg2866-images.html

Digital SAT Practice Questions: Command of Evidence

1. The following is an excerpt from Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson:

The farmer imagines power and place are fine things. But the President has paid dear for his White House.  It has commonly cost him all his peace, and the best of his many attributes. To preserve for a short time so conspicuous an appearance before the world, he is content to eat dust before the real masters who stand erect behind the throne. Or, do men desire the more substantial and permanent grandeur of genius? Neither has this an immunity. He who by force of will or of thought, is great, and overlooks thousands, has the charges of that eminence. With every influx of light comes new danger.

Based on the passage, which of the following would best describe the author’s attitude toward power?
A. Power is something to which all men strive and few men attain. Power once found will always corrupt.
B. While men see power as something laudable and to be sought after, they forget that it comes at a steep price.
C. Power should be avoided by all men who can stay away from it. Each man should be content where he is.
D. Power is all well and fine for the president and similar lofty persons, but is not suitable for the common farmer.

2.  The following is an excerpt from Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson:

The scholar of the first age received into him the world around; brooded thereon; gave it the new arrangement of his own mind, and uttered it again. It came into him life; it went out from him truth. It came to him short-lived actions; it went out from him immortal thoughts. It came to him business; it went from him poetry. It was dead fact; now, it is quick thought. It can stand, and it can go. It now endures, it now flies, it now inspires. Precisely in proportion to the depth of mind from which it issued, so high does it soar, so long does it sing.

Based on the passage, what is the “it” referred to throughout the paragraph?
A. Poetry
B. Music
C. The world
D. Actions

3. The following is an excerpt from Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson:

Society everywhere is in conspiracy against the manhood of every one of its members. Society is a joint-stock company, in which the members agree, for the better securing of his bread to each shareholder, to surrender the liberty and culture of the eater. The virtue in most request is conformity. Self-reliance is its aversion. It loves not realities and creators, but names and customs.

According to the text, what does society provide in return for the surrender of liberty and culture?
A. Food security
B. Names and customs.
C. Stocks
D. Manhood.

4. The following is adapted from Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson:

We have a great deal more kindness than is ever spoken. Barring all the selfishness that chills like east winds the world, the whole human family is bathed with an element of love like a fine ether. How many persons we meet in houses, whom we scarcely speak to, whom yet we honor, and who honor us! How many we see in the street, or sit with in church, whom, though silently, we warmly rejoice to be with! The effect of the indulgence of this human affection is a certain cordial exhilaration. The emotions of benevolence and complacency which are felt toward others, are likened to the material effects of fire; so swift, or much more swift, more active, more cheering are these fine inward irradiations. From the highest degree of passionate love, to the lowest degree of good will, they make the sweetness of life.

Based on the passage, what is the general approach of each member of society to each other member of society?
A. They treat one another with chilly selfishness.
B. When they see one another in the street or church they silently ignore them.
C. They see one another in a complacent and benevolent kindness.
D. They experience passionate love for one another.

5. The following is adapted from Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson:

Friendship requires that rare mean betwixt likeness and unlikeness, that piques each with the presence of power and of consent in the other party. Let him not cease an instant to be himself. Better be a nettle in the side of your friend, than his echo. The condition which high friendship demands is ability to do without it. That high office requires great and sublime parts. There must be very two before there can be very one. Let it be an alliance of two large formidable natures, mutually beheld, mutually feared, before yet they recognize the deep identity which beneath these disparities unites them.

Based on the passage, what must be true in order for friendship to thrive?
A. Each friend must strive to be as much like the other as possible.
B. Each friend must be great and sublime or the friendship will perish.
C. Each friend must be wholly different from the other.
D. Each friend must be true to himself and have a mutual appreciation for the other.

6. The following is an excerpt from Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson:

A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary, in the popular judgment, to the completion of this man of the world: and it is a material deputy which walks through the dance which the first has led. Money is not essential, but this wide affinity is, which transcends the habits of clique and caste, and makes itself felt by men of all classes. If the aristocrat is only valid in fashionable circles, and not with truckmen, he will never be a leader in fashion; and if the man of the people cannot speak on equal terms with the gentleman, so that the gentleman shall perceive that he is already really of his own order, he is not to be feared.

According to the passage, what needs to be true in order for men to be a complete man of the world?
A. He must be wealthy and able to use his fortune well.
B. He must be humble, regardless of his wealth.
C. He must be able to connect with men of all social classes.
D. He must be fashionable and a gentleman.

7. The following is an adaptation from Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson. In it, Emerson discusses the works of William Shakespeare:

His lyric power lies in the genius of the piece. The sonnets, though their excellence is lost in the splendor of the dramas, are as inimitable as they: and it is not a merit of lines, but a total merit of the piece; like the tone of voice of some incomparable person, so is this a speech of poetic beings, and any clause as unproducible now as a whole poem. Though the speeches in the plays, and single lines, have a beauty which tempts the ear to pause on them for their euphuism, yet the sentence is so loaded with meaning, and so linked with its foregoers and followers, that the logician is satisfied. His means are as admirable as his ends; every subordinate invention, by which he helps himself to connect some irreconcilable opposites, is a poem too.

According to the text, what makes the work of Shakespeare so admirable?
A. It is part of a greater body of works by English authors.
B. Each part is beautiful on its own and as a part of a beautiful whole.
C. Shakespeare’s tone is incomparable to that of any other writer.
D. Each line is better than the one that is written before it.

8. The following is an adaptation from Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson:

Prudence is the virtue of the senses. It is the science of appearances. It is the outermost action of the inward life. It moves matter after the laws of matter. It is content to seek health of body by complying with physical conditions, and health of mind by the laws of the intellect. The world of the senses is a world of shows; it does not exist for itself, but has a symbolic character; and a true prudence or law of shows recognizes the co-presence of other laws and knows that its own office is subaltern; knows that it is surface and not center where it works. Prudence is false when detached. It is legitimate when it is the Natural History of the soul incarnate, when it unfolds the beauty of laws within the narrow scope of the senses.

Prudence, as expressed by the passage, exists for what reason?
A. Not for itself, but to work on the surface seeking the health of the person.
B. To seek only after appearances in order to best present the body to the world.
C. To be a symbol of good moral character when interacting with the world.
D. Not for itself, but to seek good in the world around.

9. The following is an excerpt from Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson:

The actions and events of our childhood and youth are now matters of calmest observation. They lie like fair pictures in the air. Not so with our recent actions,—with the business which we now have in hand. On this we are quite unable to speculate. Our affections as yet circulate through it. We no more feel or know it than we feel the feet, or the hand, or the brain of our body. The new deed is yet a part of life,—remains for a time immersed in our unconscious life. In some contemplative hour it detaches itself from the life like a ripe fruit, to become a thought of the mind. Instantly it is raised, transfigured; the corruptible has put on incorruptibly. Henceforth it is an object of beauty, however base its origin and neighborhood.

Based on the passage, why are recent memories so difficult to calmly observe compared to older memories?
A. Recent memories are still filled with emotions and still part of our life.
B. Older memories have had more time to process and fade to nothingness.
C. Recent memories have detached from life like an unripe fruit and cannot be eaten.
D. Older memories are far more precious than recent memories and so must be often thought of.

10. The following is an adaptation from Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson:

All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear. Whilst I stand in simple relations to my fellow-man, I have no displeasure in meeting him. We meet as water meets water, or as two currents of air mix, with perfect diffusion and interpenetration of nature. But as soon as there is any departure from simplicity, an attempt at halfness, or good for me that is not good for him, my neighbor feels the wrong; he shrinks from me as far as I have shrunk from him; his eyes no longer seek mine; there is war between us; there is hate in him and fear in me.

Based on the passage, what causes the relationship between two people to sour?
A. Simple relations that never progress to deeper understanding of one another.
B. Meeting as two currents of air that must mix together in unity.
C. Any complication of a simple interaction or show of selfishness.
D. A war or argument between mutual friends and neighbors.

  1. B. In the first sentences we see that men without power (farmers) think that power and place are good things while forgetting the cost that “the president” has paid for his position of power in the White House. The rest of the passage builds on this idea, explaining the costs of gaining and maintaining power. This makes answer B correct and answers C and D incorrect. Answer A is incorrect as the author does not state power will always corrupt.
  2. C. This question is answered in the first sentence where the author says that the scholar of the first age received “the world”. He then brooded thereon and gave “it” the new arrangement. From thereon “it” refers to “the world”. All other answers are incorrect readings of the context.
  3. A. In the second sentence the author contends that “society is a… company in which members agree, for the better securing of his bread… to surrender the liberty and culture of the eater.” In other words, in order to survive and have food on the table, people agree to conform to the rules of society. This make answer A correct and the others incorrect.
  4. C. The author says extensively throughout the passage that, even toward strangers, people tend to be “a great deal more kind than is ever spoken”. While Emerson does admit that there is some “selfishness that chills” he maintains that “the whole human family is bathed with an element of love like a fine ether.” This best fits with answer C. Answers A and B are too negative and answer D is incorrect because while some members of society will feel passionate love for some, they do not feel it for all members of society.
  5. D. The author maintains that friendship requires a balance between similarity and difference and holds that no one should “cease… to be himself”. He goes on to say that friends must “recognize the deep identity which beneath these disparities unites them.” In other words, each friend must be true to himself and appreciate the other, making option D correct. Option A is incorrect as the author thinks there should be some differences. Option B is incorrect as there is no discussion of them having to be great. Option C is incorrect as the friends must have a common “deep identity” to unite them.
  6. C. The first sentence tells us that most people think a fortune is necessary for the “competition of this man of the world”. He goes on to say that there are other necessary qualification and that “money is not necessary.” One of the author’s stated qualifications is an affinity which “transcends the habits of clique and caste and makes itself felt by men of all classes.” The author goes on to give examples of men who are not complete me of the world because they lack the ability to transcend class. This makes option C correct and the other options incorrect.
  7. B. The author says that “single lines have a beauty which tempts the ear to pause… yet the sentence is so loaded with meaning, and so linked with its foregoers and followers that the logician is satisfied.” In other words, he sees great beauty in individual lines yet “it is not a merit of lines, but a total merit of the piece.” Both the lines and the whole are beautiful. No other answer encompasses this concept.
  8. A. Answer option B is incorrect as the passage does not talk about appearances. Answer option C is incorrect as prudence has a symbolic character, but is not symbolic in and of itself. Answer option D is incorrect as there is no discussion of seeking good.
  9. A. We see in the passage that older memories are matters of calmest observation, but “not so with our recent actions” because “our affections as yet circulate through it.” Our affections could also be called our emotions. Later on, the author clarifies that “the new deed is yet a part of life”, giving further reason why detached observation is difficult. This makes option A the best answer. The other options are all wrong due to misreading of the passage.
  10. C. In the passage the author describes the simplicity of human interactions, but holds that “as soon as there is any departure from simplicity, an attempts at… good for me that is not good for him, my neighbor feels the wrong” and the hate ensues. Something that is attempted that is good for one’s self but not the neighbor could be described as selfishness, which makes answer C the best option. The author does not describe a relationship that is always simple as bad, making answer A wrong. The simple mixing of two currents of air is seen as the positive relationship prior to it souring, so answer B is wrong, and the war and argument in answer D must happen after the relationship has already soured. It is therefore not causal.

Digital SAT Practice Rhetorical Synthesis #2

1. While researching a topic, a student has taken the following notes:

  • Egyptians had three kinds of paintings: one on flat surfaces, a second on bas-reliefs, and a third on designs in intaglio.
  • Intaglio designs are those hollowed out from a flat surface. Bas-reliefs are designs which are raised from the surface.
  • Egyptian painting is generally found on walls in temples and tombs as well as on columns and cornices. It is also found on small articles.
  • Egyptian painting lacks the perspective of modern art. All paintings are represented in the same plane, not painted to give the appearance of depth.
  • Painting was not signed or attributed to certain artists in ancient Egypt. For this reason, modern scholars have no knowledge of the people who created the paintings from that time period.

The student wants to educate someone unfamiliar with Egyptian paintings as to the difference between intaglio and bas-relief painting. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. Intaglio and bas-relief paintings are both forms of art that were prevalent in Ancient Egypt, and were found on walls, columns, and cornices.
B. Intaglio designs are those painted on hallowed out sections of a flat surface while bas-relief paintings are raised from the surface. Both were common in Ancient Egyptian art.
C. Modern scholars do not know the names of Ancient Egyptian painters, because their work is not signed. However, they do know that both intaglio and bas-relief painting were common.
D. In both intaglio and bas-relief painting, there is a lack of perspective that makes the art appear flat, especially to the modern eye.

2. While researching a topic, a student has taken the following notes:

  • So few fragments of Assyrian painting survive today that very little is known about the artwork of this civilization.
  • Assyrian painters appear to have done much of their work on walls, both on plaster and directly on brick.
  • When Assyrian plaster paintings are discovered, they often quickly disappear due to being exposed to the air for the first time in centuries.
  • Assyrians painted on tiles as well. Tile painting survives much longer than wall painting, but is prone to breaking. No complete Assyrian tile paintings have been assembled.

The student wants to give an overview of Assyrian painting to an audience who has no knowledge of it. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. While little is known about Assyrian painting, it seems that it was largely done on walls and on tiles.
B. Unearthed Assyrian wall painting often degrades quickly when exposed to the air, which makes it difficult to learn about this style of art.
C. Very little Assyrian painting survives today, so art historians know nothing about the art of this civilization.
D. Painted Assyrian tiles, or shards thereof, are often found. However, archeologists have been unable to assemble entire paintings.

3. While researching a topic, a student has taken the following notes:

  • In  6th century B.C.E. Babylon under king Nebuchanezzar, tile-painting was the peak of artistic expression.
  • The Babylonians were known for their rich and glowing cities, which shone with the bright and vibrant colored tiles.
  • The Babylonian tiles could be a solid color or could have intricate patterns on them. Some tiles were used to assemble vast scenes similar to those found on medieval tapestries.
  • Only a few remnants of Babylonian tile painting still exist today.

The student wants to explain to readers the beauty of Babylonian tile painting. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. Babylonian cities were rich and glowing, covered in bright and vibrantly colored tiles which made up intricate designs, some even as complex as medieval tapestries.
B. Under King Nebuchanezzar, tile-painting was the peak of artistic expression, however, few examples remain.
C. Babylonian tiles were often a solid color, though many could be covered with a painted pattern.
D. Painted tiles covered the Babylonian cities of the 6th century B.C. E. The cities were, in fact, known for their colored tiles.

4. While researching a topic, a student has taken the following notes.

  • Apelles could be described as the greatest of all Greek painters.
  • Apelles’s art is known for exquisite finishing as well as an abundance of grace and sweetness.
  • Apelles painted both King Phillip of Macedon and his son: Alexander the Great. This work lead to Apelles being the court painter and granted the exclusive rights to paint the monarch.
  • Late in his career, Apelles traveled as far as Egypt and painted a diverse range of mythological beings including Venus.

The student wants to include in her essay a sentence that will highlight Apelles’s connections to the Greek court. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. The greatest of all Greek painters, Apelles was well known at court for the grace and sweetness in his work.
B. While he was well known in Greece, Apelles also traveled widely to seek inspiration for his work
C. Apelles painted a wide variety of subjects, from Phillip of Macedon, to mythological beings like Venus.
D. Both Phillip of Macedon and his son, Alexander the Great, retained Apelles as their official portrait painter and the general court painter as well.

5. While researching a topic, a student has taken the following notes:

  • One well known form of Roman art is mosaics, which were used not just as artistic pieces, but also as wall and floor decorations.
  • The Romans did not invent the mosaic art form, but they did develop their own unique style of placing thousands of tiny shards of stone, glass, and pottery to create pictures.
  • Romans spread their mosaic art so far and wide that it is still common today for excavations in far flung parts of the former Roman empire to find amazing pieces of art buried in fields and under buildings.
  • Due to the prolific nature of Roman mosaics, many mosaics that are discovered are not preserved.

The student would like to explain to a friend already familiar with mosaics why Roman mosaics often are not preserved after discovery. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. Roman mosaics were used as wall and floor decorations and were made up of shards of glass, stone, or pottery, which made them quite durable.
B. Mosaics are still commonly found in far flung parts of the former Roman empire as the durability of the materials has allowed them to survive significantly longer than other art forms.
C. Due to the widespread nature of Roman mosaics, newly unearthed mosaics are often not preserved: there are simply too many to keep them all.
D. Mosaic tiling was known prior to the Romans adopting the art form, but the Romans perfected and spread the art form.

6. While researching a topic, a student has taken the following notes:

  • Roman catacomb paintings from the 3rd and 4th centuries C.E. often have Christian themes and are found in the underground catacombs near Rome itself since early Christians often had to hide their religious activities for fear of persecution.
  • These paintings exhibit majesty and earnestness as the painters tried to express their faith through their artwork.
  • Many of these artworks had not just literal meanings, but also symbolic meanings that would only be apparent to others who understood the significance of the chosen symbols.
  • One example of this symbolism would be a literal painting of a river of water which also had a figurative meaning in regards to baptism: a spiritual washing away of sin.

The student would like to explain the symbolism often found in catacomb paintings. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. Catacomb paintings in Rome often have both obvious and symbolic themes. The obvious would be apparent to any viewer, while the symbolic would only be known to those who could decipher them.
B. Christian symbols are often found in catacomb paintings as the painters strove to express their faith through art and still avoid persecution. One example of such a symbol would be an artist painting flowing water to symbolize baptism.
C. Known for their majesty and earnestness, many early Christian catacomb paintings from the 3rd and 4th centuries B.C.E. are still visible in Rome today.
D. Due to fear of religious persecution, many early Christian artists used symbols in their paintings and in their every day life.

7. While researching a topic, a student has taken the following notes:

  •  During the Romanesque period (950-1250) painting was not seen as an elevated art form. Rather, it was looked at as a form of visual story telling.
  • Most painting in Europe was done to illustrate religious stories and concepts and so was under the control and direction of the church.
  • Because of this connection, glass painting (what we know today as stained-glass) was developed, though historians argue whether the technique originated in Germany or France.
  • While most glass painting was very colorful as we are accustomed to seeing today, some factions of the church rejected highly colorful paintings and instead opted for grisaille glass which utilized the same patterns, but only applied paints in shades of grey, green, and brown with only very small bursts of other colors.

The student wants to emphasize the difference in how painting was seen in the Romanesque Period compared to how we see it today. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. During the Romanesque period, painting was primarily done on glass in order to illustrate religious concepts.
B. Today, painting is seen as a form of high art, while in the Romanesque period, it was used merely as a way to tell stories.
C. During the Romanesque period, most painting was done in bright and vibrant colors, however, some religious orders preferred to paint mostly in shades of grey, green, and brown.
D. Stained glass art in the Romanesque period was seen as a way to tell the stories of the church. Today, it is also used in a wide variety of non-religious settings.

8. While researching a topic, a student has taken the following notes:

  • The Gothic Period of Medieval painting was highly influenced by the well known Gothic style of architecture.
  • In the Gothic Period, painting moved out from the influence of the clergy and painters were more and more free to paint how and what they wanted, backed by powerful guild associations.
  • Gothic painting includes a lot of images from nature and starts to attempt to introduce perspective (which had previously been missing) into artistic renderings of scenes.
  • Due to the highly decorative nature of Gothic architecture, not much space was left on walls for painting. Glass painting, therefore, remained very common.

The student wants to explain the change during the Gothic period and the results of that change. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. Influenced by Gothic architecture, Gothic painting was both highly decorative, and often created on windows.
B. Both Gothic architecture and a lack of clerical oversight influenced a change in painting arts during the Gothic period.
C. While art had previously been quite flat, Gothic painters started to experiment with adding dimension and perspective to their paintings.
D. During the Gothic period, the church lost much influence over artists. This led to paintings incorporating perspective and natural themes.

9. While researching a topic, a student has taken the following notes:

  • Giotto was a well known artist in Italy  in the late 13th and early 14th century.
  • Giotto’s earliest known work is a portrait of the author Dante, painted on the wall of the Podesta at Florence.
  • Dante was exiled from Florence and his portrait was whitewashed over, which preserved it for modern scholars to examine.
  • There are many other works of Giotto in Florence and is also known for his frescoes in Assisi, and his pictures at Padua
  • In addition to his painting, Giotto is remembered as the great architect who designed the tower in Florence.

The student wants to give an overview of Giotto’s work in Florence. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this work?

A. Giotto’s first work is found on a wall in Florence. It is a painting of the author Dante. In addition to his paintings, Giotto is also known for his frescoes in Assisi and his pictures at Padua.
B. The painting of Dante at the Podesta is the first known work of Giotto and was preserved when it was whitewashed over following Giotto’s exile from Florence.
C. Giotto’s first work, a painting of Dante, as well of several other paintings still exist in Florence. In addition, he is remembered as the architect of the tower in Florence.
D. Despite being exiled from Florence, Dante is still associated with the city because of his work designing the tower in Florence.

10. While researching a topic, a student has taken the following notes:

  • The Van Eyck family, of Flemish origin, is well known for its artistic creations.
  • The family had four painters: three brothers and one sister, the eldest of which was Hubert Van Eyck.
  • Hubert Van Eyck work and discoveries on the use of colors led to modern day oil painting. After Hubert passed away, his brother, Jan, perfected the technique and became a celebrated painter.
  • Prior to the work of the Van Eyck brothers, oil painting was a very unsatisfactory process and led to mixed results. The Van Eyck method vastly improved the process and results of oil painting.

The student wants to explain to a friend the influence the Van Eyck family had on oil painting. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. There were four painters in the Van Eyck family. Two of them, Hubert and Jan, are the best remembered of the family.
B. Huber and Jan Van Eyck worked to perfect the process of oil painting and discovered techniques which led to modern oil painting.
C. Traditional oil painting was a very unpredictable process which caused issues for most painters, including all four of the Van Eyck siblings.
D. The Va Eyck family is a well known painting family. The three brothers and one sister are well known for their artistic masterpieces.

Answer Explanations:

  1. B. The question is asking for the difference between intaglio and bas-relief painting. Options A and D give the similarities between the two and are therefore incorrect. Option C focuses on the artists, not the art and only gives a similarity between the two approaches. Option B takes information from the second bullet point to point out the differences between the two approaches and is therefore correct.
  2. A. Given that the audience has no knowledge of Assyrian painting, the student must give even the most basic information. Option A best gives a basic understanding of Assyrian painting based on the notes. Option B explains why we struggle to understand Assyrian art, but does not give an overview of what we do know. Option C explains why we don’t know much but doesn’t explain what we do know. Option D is not an overview of Assyrian painting, but rather a fact about only one type of Assyrian painting.
  3. A. The student wants to explain the beauty of the Babylonian tile painting. Options B, C and D explain different facts about Babylonian tiles and painting, but do not explain their beauty. Option A explains their brightness and vibrancy, their intricate designs, and even compares them to tapestries, giving a clear understanding of the beauty of this art form.
  4. D. The student wants to talk not about Appelles’s work, but rather his connection to the Greek court (the organization surrounding the Greek monarch). The answer, therefore, must focus on Apelles’s connections to the kings Phillip of Macedon and Alexander the Great. This eliminates options A and B. Option C mentions Phillip of Macedon, but only as a subject of a painting. Option D best explains Apelles’s close connection to the court of Phillip and Alexander.
  5. C. The student’s friend is already familiar with mosaics in general, so the concept does not need to be explained, eliminating option A. The student wants to explain why Roman mosaics, once discovered, are often not preserved. Options B and D do not explain this, but rather give other details about the mosaics. Option C explains that there are simply too many mosaics to preserve them all, giving the explanation the student wants.
  6. B. The student wants to explain the symbolism found specifically in catacomb paintings. Option A talks about the existence of symbols, but does not give an explanation of them. Option D does not discuss catacomb paintings specifically. Option C does not address symbols at all. Option B, therefore, is the best answer since it addresses catacomb painting specifically, addresses why they were used, and gives an explanation of one specific symbol.
  7. B. The student wants to emphasize the difference between how we see art today (as an elevated art form) and how people saw it in the Romanesque period (as a means of visual storytelling). Only option B provides this contrast. Options  A and C speak to Romanesque painting, but not to modern painting. Option B does not discuss how the painting is seen, but rather how stained glass is used.
  8. D. The correct answer must include both the change during the Gothic period and the results of that change. Option A does not discuss how Gothic painting changed. Option B discusses why a change occurred, but not what that change was. Option C discusses a change, but not the effects thereof. Option D is the best answer since it discusses a change (the church lost influence) and the effects thereof (artists started using perspective and natural themes).
  9. C.  The correct answer must give a broad overview of Giotto’s work specifically in Florance. Option A speaks of his work in multiple places. Options B and C speak of just one Florentine work of Giotto. Option C gives the best general overview of Giotto’s work in Florence.
  10. B. In order to understand the influence the family as a whole had on oil painting, option B is the best answer since it discusses the influences of multiple members of the family. Option A says they are remembered, but not any influence that they had. Option C discusses an issue they had. D presents the idea that they are well known, but not that they had any influence on oil painting in general.

The information for all notes is taken from History of Art for Beginners and Students. If you wish to read more it is available in the public domain from Project Gutenberg:

https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/24726/pg24726-images.html#CHAPTER_I

Digital SAT Standard English Conventions Practice Questions: Punctuation

1.  The hour of noon had just struck, and the few visitors still lingering among the curiosities of the great museum were suddenly startled by the sight of one of the attendants running down the broad, central staircase, loudly shouting, “Close the doors! Let no one out! An accident has ____________________ to leave the building.”

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. occurred, while nobody’s
B. occurred, while nobodies
C. occurred, and nobody is
D. occurred, and nobodies

2. She did not answer. She did not even look his way. With a rapid glance into the faces __________________ in one of deep compassion directed toward herself, he repeated his question.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. about him, ending
B. about him; ending
C. about him ending
D. about him ending,

3. With an air of relief Mr. Jewett stepped again into the court and, repelling with hasty gestures the importunities of the small group of men and women who had lacked the courage to follow the more adventurous ______________________ to where the door-man stood on guard over the main entrance.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. ones upstairs—crossed
B. ones upstairs crossed
C. ones upstairs crossed,
D. ones upstairs, crossed

4. They were standing at the foot of the great staircase connecting the two floors. __________________ away on either side, ran the two famous, highly ornamented galleries, with their row of long low arches indicating the five compartments into which they were severally divided.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. Above them, stretching
B. Above, them stretching
C. Above them stretching
D. Above them—stretching

5. The Curator offered his arm. The old man made a move to ___________________ himself up with an air of quiet confidence.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. take it then, drew
B. take it then drew
C. take it—then drew
D. take it: then drew

6. She was near ______________________ being a woman of great nerve, she fought her weakness and waited patiently for the next question. It was different, without doubt, from any she had expected.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. collapsing again, however,
B. collapsing again; however,
C. collapsing again: however,
D. collapsing again, however;

7. As he was meditating how he could best convey to her the necessity of detaining her further, he heard a muttered exclamation from the young woman standing near her and, following the direction of her pointing finger, saw that the strange silence which had fallen upon the room had a _______________ had fainted away in her chair.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. cause; Mrs. Taylor,
B. cause: Mrs. Taylor
C. cause, Mrs. Taylor
D. cause Mrs. Taylor,

8. But the detective was not so hasty. With a thousand things in mind, he stopped to peer along the gallery and down into the court before giving himself away to any prying eye. Satisfied that he might make the desired move with impunity, Mr. Gryce was about to turn in the desired direction when, struck by a ______________ again stopped short.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. new fact: he
B. new fact, he,
C. new fact he
D. new fact, he

9. The detective, thus appealed to, hesitated a ____________________ an irrelevance perhaps natural to the occasion, he inquired where this door so conveniently hidden from the general view led to.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. a moment then; with
B. a moment; then, with
C. a moment, then, with
D. a moment then with

10. The detective, working his way back around the pedestal, cast another glance up and down the _________________ into the court. Still no spying eye, save that of the officer opposite.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. gallery and over
B. gallery, and over
C. gallery and, over
D. gallery: and over

11. Silence. Heads moving, eyes peering, excitement visible in every face, but not a word from anybody. Mr. Gryce turned and pointed up at the clock. ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­_________________ still no word from man or woman.

Which choice completest the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. All looked however
B. All looked: but
C. All looked, or
D. All looked—but

12. He decided upon the northern one, which you will remember was the one holding _________________ __ finding anybody there, no matter whom, would certainly settle the identity of the person responsible for that flying arrow.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. the tapestry; since
B. the tapestry, since,
C. the tapestry since,
D. the tapestry: since,

13. A man was there: man going down—_________________ this man, as he soon saw from his face and uniform, was Correy the attendant.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. no—coming up—
B. no, coming up;
C. no coming up;
D. no, coming up,

14. As he did this, two ____________________ Sweetwater, who had stolen upon the scene, possibly at some intimation from Mr. Gryce, took a step toward them which brought him in alignment with the Englishman, of whose height in comparison with his own he seemed to take careful note; and secondly, the sensitive skin of the foreigner flushed red again as he noticed the Coroner’s sarcastic smile, and heard his dry remark.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. things happened; first
B. things happened; first,
C. things happened: first,
D. things happened: first

15. But nowhere in the great city of which we write on this night of May 23, 1913, was there to be found a scene of greater ______________________ the court and galleries of its famous museum.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. contradictions: than in
B. contradictions than, in
C. contradictions than in
D. contradictions than in,

16. Gems of antique art, casts in which genius had stored its soul and caused to live before us the story of the _________________ from desert sands, friezes from the Parthenon and bas-reliefs from Nineveh and Heliopolis, filled every corner, commanding the eye to satisfy itself in forms of deathless grace or superhuman power.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. ancients pillars
B. ancients, pillars
C. ancients pillars,
D. ancients: pillars

17. The Inspector, finding himself very much disturbed by the doubt just mentioned, felt inclined to _________________ any perceptible advancement had been made by this freak business of his canny subordinate.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. question: whether
B. question whether,
C. question; whether
D. question whether

18. In saying this, Mr. Gryce studiously avoided the _____________________ the Inspector in his turn looked up, then down—anywhere but in the detective’s direction.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. Inspectors’ eye;
B. Inspector’s eye;
C. Inspector’s eye:
D. Inspectors’ eye,

19. For the next three days the impatience of the public met with nothing but disappointment. The police were reticent—more reticent far than __________________________ to add to the facts already published, had little but conjectures to offer.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. usual—and the papers, powerless
B. usual, and the papers, powerless
C. usual—and the papers—powerless
D. usual, and the papers—powerless

20. The other—Carleton Roberts, his bosom friend, and the museum’s chief director—is of a different _____________ no less striking to the eye.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?
A. type: but
B. type, nor
C. type, but
D. type, for

  1. C. “An accident has occurred” is an independent clause. “Nobody is to leave the building” is also an independent clause. Two independent clauses can be connected with a comma and one of the FANBOYS. “While” is not one of the FANBOYS, so A and B are incorrect. “Nobodies” is the plural form of “nobody” so D is incorrect. Answer C is correct because it correctly uses comma FANBOYS and it has the correct format of the word “nobody”.
  2. A. The phrase “ending in one of deep compassion directed toward herself” is extra information in the sentence that is not crucial to the structure of the sentence. Such phrases should be surrounded by commas, dashes, or parentheses. Since there is a comma after the word “herself” there must therefore also be a comma before the word “ending” to correctly bracket the phrase with commas. This makes A the best answer and the other answers incorrect.
  3. D. The phrase starting with the word “repelling” and ending with the word “upstairs” is extra information in the sentence that is not crucial to the structure of the sentence. Such phrases should be surrounded by commas, dashes, or parentheses. Since there is a comma before the word “repelling” there must therefore also be a comma after the word “upstairs” to correctly bracket the phrase with commas. This makes option D the best answer and the other options incorrect.
  4. A. The phrase starting with the word “stretching” and ending with the word “side” is extra information in the sentence that is not crucial to the structure of the sentence. Such phrases should be surrounded by commas, dashes, or parentheses. Since there is a comma after the word “side” there must therefore also be a comma before the word “stretching” to correctly bracket the phrase with commas. This makes option A the best answer and the other options incorrect.
  5. C. The first clause in the second sentence is an independent clause. The second clause is dependent. To connect an independent and dependent clause you should use a comma, however, this is not an option. A dash can replace a comma, giving a heavier pause. This makes answer C the best answer. Answer A puts a comma in the wrong place, answer B does not give punctuation where a pause is needed, answer D is incorrect as the second part of the sentence is not clarifying or explaining the first part.
  6. B. In this situation, the word “however” logically belongs with the second independent clause. The semicolon connecting the two independent clauses, therefore, must go after the word “again”. The word “however” is then an introductory word to the second independent clause, making it logical to place a comma thereafter. This makes option B correct and the other options incorrect.
  7. B. Options C and D are both run on sentences in which two independent clauses are incorrectly connected with a comma. The second clause is clarifying or explaining something from the first clause, namely, the reason the silence has fallen on the room. This makes a colon the best possible answer since a colon connects an independent clause to a clarification or explanation of that clause.
  8. D. The phrase “struck by a new fact” is extra information in the sentence that is not crucial to the structure of the sentence. Such phrases should be surrounded by commas, dashes, or parentheses. Since there is a comma after the word “when” there must therefore also be a comma before the word “again” to correctly bracket the phrase with commas. This makes D the best answer and the other answers incorrect.
  9. B. This sentence is really made up of two sentences. The first one ends after the word “moment”. The second sentence is made up of a dependent clause connected to an independent clause with the comma after the word “occasion”. To connect two sentences, we need to put a period or a semicolon between them. This makes option B the best answer.
  10. A. In this portion of the sentence no clauses are ending or beginning, no extra information exists, and no lists are being enumerated. In other words, there is no reason to put any sort of punctuation. This makes answer A the best option. Answer B would be correct only if the “and” were connecting two independent clauses.
  11. D. In this sentence, there is a contrast between all looking, and no one saying anything. This makes answers A and C incorrect. In addition, the second part of the sentence is not clarifying or explaining the first part, meaning that option B is incorrect. This just leaves answer D which uses the versatile dash to connect two clauses.
  12. A. The first part of this passage is a sentence made up of a dependent clause connected to an independent clause with a comma after the word “one”. The second part of the passage is an independent clause interrupted by the extra information “no matter whom”. To connect these two complete sentences, we need to use a semicolon. This makes option A correct and the other options incorrect.
  13. B. The first part of this passage is a sentence made up of an independent clause with a colon and then clarifying information ending after the word “up.” The second part of the passage is an independent clause interrupted by the extra information “as he soon saw from his face and uniform.” In order to connect these two sentences, we need to use a semicolon. This eliminates option D. The confusion of having two dashes around essential information eliminates option A. The need for a pause after “no” leads us to B as the best answer.
  14. C. A colon goes after an independent clause and before a clarification or explanation of that independent clause. A comma goes after an introductory word or phrase like “first”. This makes answer option C the best choice.
  15. C. In this portion of the sentence no clauses are ending or beginning, no extra information exists, and no lists are being enumerated. In other words, there is no reason to put any sort of punctuation.
  16. B. This sentence starts with a list. Among the items in the list are “casts in which genius had stored its soul and caused to live before us the story of the ancients” and “pillars from desert sands”. These two items must be separated with a comma, making option B the correct answer.
  17. D. In this portion of the sentence no clauses are ending or beginning, no extra information exists, and no lists are being enumerated. In other words, there is no reason to put any sort of punctuation.
  18. B. In this sentence there is a single inspector who has possession over his eye. This means that the apostrophe must go before the “s”, making options A and D incorrect. In addition, we are connecting two independent clauses, making the semicolon the best option.
  19. A. “More reticent far than usual” is extra information in the sentence. Since it begins with a dash before the word “more” we must end it with a dash after the word “usual”. The phrase “powerless to add to the facts already published” is also extra information. Since it ends with a comma after the word “published” we must start it with a comma before the word “powerless”. This makes option A the correct answer.
  20. C. The first clause of the sentence says that Carleton Roberts is a different type, this contrasts with him being “no less striking”. The contrasting word “but” therefore fits the author’s meaning. A comma to connect the independent clause to a dependent one would also be appropriate, making option C the best answer.

All passages are adapted or taken from The Mystery of the Hasty Arrow by Anna Katharine Green. You can read who whole exciting mystery novel about a murder in a museum for free online:

https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/17763/pg17763-images.html

Digital SAT Practice: Writing/Verb Choice Questions

1. The officer nodded, took the boy by the arm, and in a trice ___________ with him into the adjoining store.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. have disappeared
B. disappears
C. disappeared
D. disappear

2. ________ the white light burn on, Mr. Gryce, by a characteristic effort, shifted his attention to the walls, covered, as I have said, with tapestries and curios.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. Letting
B. Let
C. Had let
D. Have let

3. And sure enough, in another instant this strange being, losing all semblance to his former self, entered upon a series of pantomimic actions which to the two men who watched him seemed both to explain and illustrate the crime which _________________________ there.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. had just been enacted
B. have just been enacted
C. were just enacted
D. had just enacted

4. The butler’s lips opened and a string of strange gutturals poured forth, while with his one disengaged hand (for the other was held to his side by Styles) he _________ his ears and his lips, and violently shook his head.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. touches
B. was touching
C. touched
D. had touched

5. This absence of the usual means of eliciting knowledge from the surrounding people, adds to, rather than detracts from, the interest which Mr. Gryce  feels in the case, and a little before midnight the army of reporters, medical men, officials, and such others as had followed in the coroner’s wake, _______ out of the front door and leave him again, for a few hours at least, master of the situation.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. files
B. file
C. filing
D. filed

6. The hour was late, and only certain portions of the city showed any real activity. Into one of these thoroughfares they presently came, and before the darkened window of one of the lesser shops ________, while Jake pointed out the two stuffed frogs engaged with miniature swords in mortal combat at which he had been looking when the lady came up and spoke to him.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. paused,
B. pausing,
C. pause,
D. pauses,

7. The officer went out, and Mr. Gryce sat for a few moments communing with himself, during which he took out a little package from his pocket, and __________ out on his desk the five little spangles it contained, regarded them intently.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. emptied
B. empties
C. had emptied
D. emptying

8. Sweetwater, to whom the song of the sirens would have sounded less sweet, listened with delight and ______________ with a frank smile.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. respond
B. had responded
C. responds
D responded

9. This time he approached with considerable feebleness, passed slowly into the study, ­­­­­­­­­­­______________ to the table, and reached out his hands as if to lift something which he expected to find there.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. advances
B. advanced
C. have advanced
D. advance

10. But her ears, and attention, _______________toward two girls chatting on a bench near her as freely as if they were quite alone on the lawn.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. was turned
B. are turned
C. were turned
D. is turned

11. Was it that courage comes with despair? Or was he too absorbed in his own misery to note the shadow it cast about him? His brooding brow and vacant eye _______ of a mind withdrawn from present surroundings.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. speaks
B. speak
C. spoke
D. spoken

12. So I wrote to my brother, Felix Cadwalader, or, rather, Felix Adams, as he preferred to be called in later years for family reasons entirely disconnected with the matter of his sudden demise, and, ________ him I had become interested in a young girl of good family and some wealth, asked him to settle upon me a certain sum which would enable me to marry her with some feeling of self-respect.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. told
B. tells
C. telling
D. had told

13. Eva, to whom I had said little of this brother, certainly nothing which would lead her to anticipate ___________ either so handsome a man or one of such mental poise and imposing character, looked frightened and a trifle awe-struck.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. seeing
B. to see
C. having seen
D. saw

14. Your stay in Mr. Adams’s house was quite productive, ma’am. Did you prolong it after the departure of this old man?” “No, sir, I _____________my fill of the mysterious, and left immediately after him.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. had had
B. have had
C. was having
D. could have

15. Mr. Gryce, with something of the instinct and much of the deftness of a housewife, proceeded to pull up a couple of rugs from the parlor floor and ­­_________ them over these openings.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. strung
B. string
C. had strung
D. strings

16. Miss Butterworth drew a long breath, ________ Mr. Gryce with some curiosity, and then triumphantly exclaimed, “Can you read the meaning of all that? I think I can.”

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. eyes
B. had eyed
C. eying
D. eyed

17. Mr. Gryce, whose eye is travelling over the wall, reaches over her shoulder to one of the dozen pictures hanging at intervals from the bottom to the top of the staircase, and pulling it away from the wall, on which it hangs decidedly askew, _________ a round opening through which pours a ray of blue light which can only proceed from the vault of the adjoining study.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. revealed
B. revealing
C. reveals
D. has revealed

18. The study—that most remarkable of rooms—________ a secret which has not been imparted to you; a very peculiar one, madam, which was revealed to me in a rather startling manner.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?

A. did contain
B. contains
C. is containing
D. contain

19. Young Sweetwater, who was now all nerve, enthusiasm, and hope, ______________.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. bow
B. bowed
C. bowing
D. have bowed

20. The two gentlemen, on the contrary, with an air of total indifference to her proximity, continued their walk until they reached the end of the piazza, and then __________ and proceeded mechanically to retrace their steps.

Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of standard English?
A. turned
B. turning
C. turn
D. turns

  1. C. In the sentence, the officer does three things. He nods, takes the boys arm, and disappears. In the sentence the first two actions are in the past tense “nodded, took”. In order to maintain parallel structure, the third verb should also be in the past tense. This makes option C the best answer. Options B and D are in the present, and option A is the plural present perfect, not the singular simple past.
  2. A. In English we can use the present participle or gerund (word ending in ing) to indicate that something is currently happening at the point in time being discussed. In this case, Mr. Gryce is letting the light burn while in the past he shifted attention to the walls. The other answers do not appropriately choose a tense that allows the reader to understand this.
  3. A. Answer options C and D are incorrect because they say that the crime enacted something instead of the crime being enacted itself. Option B is incorrect because it uses the plural “have” to describe the singular “crime”. Answer option A is therefore the best choice because it uses the singular “had” and correctly explains that it is the crime that was enacted.
  4. C. In this sentence, the butler is doing three things. His lips open, he touches his ears and lips, and he shakes his head. All three of these actions must be in the same tense. This makes option C correct as it matches “touched” to “opened” and “shook”.
  5. A. Be careful in identifying the subject of your verb in such lengthy sentences. Who is it who is filing out the front door? It isn’t Mr. Gryce. Nor is it the reporters, medical men, officials etc. (the subject of your verb will never be in a prepositional phrase).  Rather, the subject of the verb is “army”. Army is a singular noun, so you much choose the singular “files”. In addition, the passage is in present tense, making option D incorrect.
  6. A.  Since the passage is in the past tense and “paused” is in the past tense, answer A is the only correct answer.
  7. D. While the passage is in the past tense, at that point in the past, Mr. Gryce is presently “emptying” the package out onto his desk. One way to be clued into this is to put the answers into the context of the last part of the passage “regarded them intently.” Which only makes sense when answer D is selected. If answer A is selected the sentence is awkward.
  8. D. Sweetwater is doing two things—match your answer to “listened” and the correct answer “responded” becomes obvious.
  9. B. The man did four things: approached, passed, advanced, and reached. Only answer option B correctly matches “advanced” with the others.
  10. C. Since the subject “ears” is plural, options A and D are incorrect as they have singular verbs “was” and “is”. Since the sentence is in the past tense, the verb “were” is the most appropriate answer.
  11. C. This passage is in the simple past, so our verb must be “spoke”. Options A and B are in the present, and option D is the past participle which would go with a helping verb to create the past perfect instead of building the simple past.
  12. C. Even though this passage is in the past tense, this particular sentence is put into the past with the words “had become”. What the author is saying is that at a point in the past, the author of the letter was currently “telling” his brother that he (the writer) had become interested. The only answer that fits this complicated idea is answer option C.
  13. A. Since Eva is anticipating something, that something will be happening in the future. This means that we must use the gerund form—that is—the verb with “ing” at the end. This makes option A the best answer and the other options incorrect.
  14. A. In the past, the lady had already had her fill of the mysterious. She “had had” it. While this seems intuitively wrong, it is the correct way to express that in the past someone already had something. Option B would be used if the subject were plural instead of a singular person.
  15. B. Mr. Gryce does two things the first is to “pull” and the second, therefore must be to “string” so that the tenses of the verbs match.
  16. D. Miss Butterworth “drew”, “eyed”, and “exclaimed”. In order for her three actions to be in parallel structure (all in the simple past), we must pick option D.
  17. C. Since this passage is describing Mr. Gryce’s actions in the present tense, the best option is option C, the third person present singular. Options A and D are forms of the past tense and option B is the gerund form.
  18. B. The subject of this verb is singular: the study. This make option be the only correct answer since it is the third person singular conjugation of the verb “contain”.
  19. B. The subject of the verb is “Young Sweetwater”. When you put the subject directly in front of the answers it becomes clear that only option B is the right verb. Answers A and D are both plural while the subject is singular. Option C is the gerund form which is not appropriate in this context.
  20. A. Make sure that your answer is parallel in form to the second verb “proceeded”. In this case, that would mean choosing answer option A: turned.  The other options are not parallel.


All passages have been adapted from The Circular Study by Anna Katharine Green. Read more of this mystery novel on project Gutenberg:

https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/18761/pg18761-images.html


Digital SAT Practice Questions–Command of Evidence: Quantitative

Here are 10 original questions to practice the new Digital SAT Quantitative Command of Evidence questions.

  1. Consumption of Sugar, Coffee, and Tea:

CountrySugar (lbs)Coffee (lbs)Tea (lbs)
Great Britain35.960.903.190
United States24.635.68—–
Holland14.867.030.800
France14.392.320.018
Norway11.046.920.060
Sweden9.800.800.060
Switzerland9.605.28—-
Germany9.424.030.035
Denmark9.003.400.400
Belgium7.188.590.018
Portugal6.330.690.040
Italy5.200.900.020
Austria4.931.300.012
Spain4.230.010.040
Russia2.400.0070.160

The entire consumption of sugar in Europe has averaged, during the last few years, 3,410,000 pounds, and for the whole world is it set down at nearly twice that amount. It is estimated that three fourths of the sugar is made from cane, and one fourth from beet. The consumption of coffee has doubled in most countries during the last twenty years.


A scientist wishes to use data from the table to try to back up the initial claim of the author as to European sugar consumption. Which of the following procedures should the scientist undertake in order to utilize the data?

A. Add up all the sugar from European countries and see if it is roughly 3,410,000 pounds.
B. Add up all the sugar from all countries and see if it is exactly 3,410,000 pounds
C. Add up all the coffee from the European countries and see if it is double 3,410,000 pounds
D. Add up all the coffee from the all the countries and see if it is exactly 3,410,000 pounds.

2. Annual report to Congress of the Commissioner of Patents, 1876:

Number of applications for patents in 187621,425
Number of patents issued, including reissues and designs15,595
Number of applications for extension of patents2
Number of patents extended3
Number of caveats filed during the year2,697
Number of patents expired during the year814
Number of patents allowed but not issued for want of final fee3,353
Number of applications for registering of trademarks1,081
Number of trademarks registered959
Number of applications for registering of labels650
Number of labels registered402

The number of applications for patents was a little less than during the previous year. The Commissioner suggests that Congress should appropriate $50,000 to promote the printing of the old patents; that additional examiners be employed, and more clerks, for the purpose of expiating the business of the office; that the price of the Official Gazette be reduced, also the fee for trademark registration; that the library fund be increased; that more space be provided for models, and the transaction of business.


The author is requesting additional funds to hire employees for the patent office. Which answer, if true, would support his claim that more examiners and clerks are needed?

A. Of the 15,595 patents issued, most were to citizens of the United States.
B. Of the roughly 21,425 applications, over half could not be reviewed in time for the annual report.
C. Three patent extensions were needed in 1876
D. The 3,353 patents not issued for lack of fee were mostly to non-Americans



3.

 Without ConductorWith Conductor
Moisture %78.2179.84
Sugar16.8618.41
Tartaric acid0.8000.791
Bitartrate of potash0.1800.186

Macagno, also believing that the passage of electricity from air through the vine to earth would stimulate growth, selected a certain number of vines, all of the same variety and all in the same condition of health and development. Sixteen vines were submitted to experiment and sixteen were left to natural influences. In the ends of the vines under treatment, pointed platinum wires were inserted, to which were attached copper wires, leading to the tops of tall poles near the vines; at the base of these same vines other platinum wires were inserted and connected by copper wires with the soil. At the close of the experiment, the wood, leaves, and fruit of both sets of vines were submitted to careful analysis with the above results.

Which answer would be the best summary statement to make based on the results in the chart as they relate to Mocagno’s hypothesis?

A. The plants without the conductor and the plants with the conductor had no measurable difference in bitartrate of potash.
B. The plants with the conductor had higher levels of moisture, sugar, and bitartrate of potash, which created growth and proves Macagno’s hypothesis correct.
C. Because the plants without a conductor had higher tartaric acid levels, they would have grown more than the plans with the conductor, proving Macagno’s hypothesis incorrect.
D. Because we do not have data on the size or height of the plants, we can not draw conclusions as to the effect of the conductor on plant growth. Macagno’s hypothesis remains untested.

4. The following table gives the absolute sensitiveness of several of the best known kinds of American and foreign photography plates, when developed with oxalate, in terms of pure silver chloride taken as a standard. As the numbers would be very large, however, if the chloride were taken as a unit, it was thought better to give them in even hundred thousands.

Sensitiveness of Plates:

PlatesDaylightGaslight
Carbutt transparency0.7
Allen and Rowell1.3150
Richardson Standard1.310
Marchall and Blair2.7140
Blair Instantaneous3.0140
Carbutt Special4.020
Monroe4.025
Wratten and Wainwright4.010
Eastman special5.330
Richardson Instantaneous5.320
Walker Reid and Inglis11.0600
Edwards11.020
Monckhoven16.0120
Beebe16.020
Cramer16.0120

It will be noted that the plates most sensitive to gaslight are by no means necessarily the most sensitive to daylight; in some instances, in fact,                                                                . It should be said that the above figures cannot be considered final until each plate has been tested separately with its own developer, as this would undoubtedly have some influence on the final result.

Which answer option best completes the passage with information consistent with the data in the table?


A. there is no gaslight sensitivity whatsoever
B. the gaslight and daylight sensitivity seem to be nearly the same
C. the reverse seems to be true
D. The daylight sensitivity is far below the gaslight sensitivity

5. So much has been claimed for natural gas as regards the superiority of its heating properties as compared with coal, that some analyses of this gas, together with calculations showing the comparison between its heating power and that of coal, may be of interest. These calculations are, of course, theoretical in both cases, and it must not be imagined that the total amount of heat, either in a ton of coal or 1,000 cubic feet of natural gas, can ever be fully utilized. In making these calculations I employed as a basis what in my estimation was a gas of an average chemical composition, as I have found that gas from the same well caries continually in its compositions. Thus, samples of gas from the same well, but taken on different days, _______________________________________  and so with all the component gases.

Analysis of Natural Gas- given as percents

Date tested10/28/8410/29/8411/24/8412/4/8410/18/8410/25/84
Carbonic Acid0.8.60.400.3
Carbonic Oxide1.00.8.580.41.00.30
Oxygen1.10.8.780.82.11.2
Olefiant Gas0.70.80.980.60.80.6
Ethylic Hydride3.65.57.9212.305.24.8
March Gas72.1865.2560.7049.5857.8575.16
Hydrogen20.0226.1629.0335.929.6414.45
Nitrogen000023.412.89
Heat Units728,746698,170627,170745,813592,380745,591

Which answer option best completes the passage with information from the chart?


A. vary in olefiant gas from .98 to .6, Ethylic Hydride from 12.3 to 3.6, heat units from 745,813 to 592,380,
B. vary in nitrogen from 23 percent to zero percent, carbonic acid from two percent to zero percent, oxygen from four percent to 0.4 percent,
C. vary in nitrogen from 23 percent to zero percent, carbonic acid from two percent to zero percent, heat units from 745,813 to 592,380,
D. vary in nitrogen from 23.41 to 0, carbonic acid from .08 to .3, Oxygen from 1.1 to 1.2

6. The following table gives some particulars of the Great Lakes and the discharge from them:

LakeElevation above mean tideArea of Basin (square miles)Area of lake (square miles)RainfallEvaporationDischarge
Superior602.7890,50538.875187,38634,49580,870
Huron and Michigan581.28121,94150,400262,96466,754216,435
Erie572.8640,29810,00096,65413,870234,578
Ontario246.6131,5587,22075,69210,568272,095

The average variation in level of the lakes is from 18 inches to 24 inches during the year, and the range in evaporation from year to year is also very considerable; thus the evaporation per second on Huron and Michigan, as given in the table above, _____________________  but the figures for another year show nearly 89,000 feet per second, which would represent a difference of 6.5 inches in water level. As a discharge of 10,000 cubic feet a second into the new canal would lower the level of these two lakes by 2.87 inches in a year, it follows that the difference between a year of maximum and one of minimum evaporations is more than twice as great as would be required for the canal, and even under the most unfavorable conditions the volume taken from the whole chain of lakes would not lower them an inch.

Which answer option best completes the passage with relevant data from the table?


A. is nearly 67,000 feet,
B. is around 250,000 feet,
C. is nearly 14,000 feet,
D. is nearly 35,000 feet,

7. The portion of the flame which is supposed to be the hottest is about half an inch above the tip of the inner zone of the flame, and it is at this point that most vessels containing water to be heated are made to impinge on the flame; and it is this portion of the flame, also, which is utilized for raising various solids to a temperature at which they radiate heat.

In order to gain an insight into the amount of contamination which the air undergoes when a geyser or cooking stove is at work, I have determined the composition of the products of a combustion, and the unburned gases escaping when a vessel containing water at the ordinary temperatures is heated up to the boiling point by a gas flame, the vessel being placed, in the fist case, half an inch above the inner cone of the flame, and in the second, at the extreme outer tip of the flame.

Gases Escaping During Combustion:

 Luminous flame InnerLuminous flame Outer
Nitrogen77.5269.41
Water Vapor11.8019.24
Carbon Dioxide4.938.38
Carbon Monoxide2.452.58
March Gas0.950.39
Acetylene0.270
Hydrogen2.080
   
 100.00100.00


Based on the passage and the table, what inference could be made about the placement of the water vessel and the resulting effects on the air in the room the experiment was conducted?

A.  When water was heated in a vessel placed in the hottest part of the flame, less of every type of contaminant was released into the air, leading to better air quality than when the vessel was placed in a cooler part of the flame.
B. When water was heated in a vessel placed in the hottest part of the flame, more nitrogen, march gas, acetylene, and hydrogen were released into the air while less water vapor, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were released. The resulting effect on air quality is unknown.
C. When water was heated in a vessel placed in the hottest part of the flame, less nitrogen, march gas acetylene, and hydrogen were released into the air while more water vapor, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were released. The resulting effect on air quality is positive.
D. When water was heated in a vessel placed in the hottest part of the flame, more of every type of contaminant was released into the air, leading to poorer air quality than when the vessel was placed in a cooler part of the flame.



8. Eggs Laid and Gain in Weight in Hens over the course of three periods.

 NitrogenousCarbonaceous
Live Weight, July 26th23.5323.56
Live weight, November 2721.3122.00
Loss2.221.56
Number of Eggs laid79.0026.00
Weight of eggs laid (lb)8.252.92
Average weight of eggs (oz)1.671.80
Gain in weight, including eggs (lb)6.031.36

During the first week the carbonaceous fed hens laid three eggs while the others laid two. The two groups were, therefore, practically evenly divided at the start as to the condition of the laying stage. At the end of the first period the nitrogenous fed hens had laid forty-three eggs and the carbonaceous fed hens had laid twenty. During the next twenty-five days the former laid thirty and the latter six; ___________________________________     From this time on no eggs were received from either group. The decline in egg production was probably due in large part to the fact that the hens began to molt during the second period, and continued to do so during the rest of the experiment.

Which answer option best uses information from the table to complete the passage?


A. during the third period the former laid six and the latter not any.
B. during the third period the former laid 79 and the later laid 26.
C. during the third period the former laid non and the latter laid six.
D. during the third period it was no possible to tabulate the number of eggs laid.



9. Cost of living for a man in Great Britain and the United States, in shillings:

 Great BritianUnited States
Food744773.7
Clothing192278.4
Rent144272.1
Fuel60122.0
Sundries6090.0
Total:1200 Shillings
(60 pounds)
1536.2 Shillings (77 pounds, 16 shillings)

Having agreed that wages are probably 62 percent higher in Massachusetts than in Great Britain, it would be easy, if we could ascertain what proportion of a working man’s income is spent respectively in groceries, provisions, clothing etc., to determine what advantage an operative derives from the higher wages of the United States. Dr. Engle, the chief of the Prussian Bureau of Statistics, puts us in possession of this information, and, as the result of a laborious inquiry, has formulated a certain economic law which governs the relations between income and expenditure. We learn, consequently ___________________________ .

Which answer best uses information from the table and the passage to draw a conclusion about wage equity between the United States and Great Britain?

A. that a workman earning 1200 shillings per year in Great Britain would also have to pay more in food costs, thus further reducing his available funds, and making the advantage of working in the United States even stronger. 
B. that workers in the United States have to pay more for everything from food to Sundries, making their income lower than that of a man in a comparable job in Great Britain.
C. that a workman in Great Britain earns only 60 pounds per year while a comparable workman in the United States earns over 77 pounds, creating a wealth gap of 17 pounds, 16 shillings between English and American workers.
D. that a workman earning 60 pounds per annum in Great Britain would receive 99 pounds in the States, but living there would cost him 77 pounds, or 17 pounds more than here, giving him a net advantage of only 22 pounds.

10. The following table, which has been prepared by the French Ministry of Public Works, gives the railway mileage of the various countries of Europe and the United States up to the end of 1881, with the number of miles constructed in that year, and the population per mile:

CountryTotal MilesMiles Built in 1881Population per Mile
Germany21,3133312,154
Great Britain18,1571641,939
France17,1348952,170
Austria-Hungary11,8802623,200
Italy5,4501095,321
Spain4,8691763,492
Sweden and Norway4,6162731,408
Belgium2,561482,203
Switzerland1,557221,831
Holland1,425832,885
Denmark1,053251,919
Romania916565,860
Turkey8662,891
Portugal75785,870
Greece628,000
Total107,3062,4553,168
United States104,8139,358502

It appears from this that the United States Mileage was only 2,493 less than the total of all Europe, and at the present time it exceeds it, as the former country has built about 6,000 miles this year, whereas Europe has not exceeded 1,500. The difference in the number of persons per mile in the two cases is also

Which answer, if true, would best complete the author’s thought, using data from the table?


A. generally minimal, with the difference between countries varying from 5,870 in Portugal to 1,405 in Sweden and Norway with two outliers: the United States and Greece.
B. very great: Greece has one mile of rail for every 28,000 people while Sweden and Norway have one mile of rail for every 1,408 people largely due to the density of their population.
C. very great, Europe taking six times as many persons to support a mile of railway as the States, and can only be accounted for by the fact that American railways are constructed much cheaper than the European ones.
D. marginal, with the average population per mile in Europe hovering around 4,750.




Answer Solutions

1.  A. The passage claims that Europe has, in the past few years, had a sugar consumption around 3,410,000 pounds. If a scientist wanted to support this, he or she could find the total European sugar consumption for the year in the table and see if it is close to the average. Of course, any given year might be an outlier, but given the limited data in the table, this is still the best option. Option B is incorrect because it includes non-European countries. Options C and D are correct because the scientist is trying to make a claim about sugar, not coffee.
2. B. In the passage, the commissioner requests additional funds in order to employ more examiners and clerks for the patent office “for the purpose of expiating the business of the office”. In other words, they need more people so that the office can move more quickly in processing the patent and other applications. If it were true that only half of the submitted patents had been able to be reviewed by the time the end of the year report came out, that would support the idea that more workers are needed, making option B correct. Option A is incorrect, as the citizenship of the applicants does not impact the need for more funds. Options C and D are incorrect for the same reason.
3. D. The hypothesis posited by Mscagno was that electricity would stimulate the growth of the plants. Because plant height, weight, or other indicators of growth were not measured, the data cannot be used to support Macagno’s hypothesis. This makes option D correct and the other answers incorrect. The presence of moisture, sugar, tartaric acid, and bitartrate of potash are not indicators of growth.
4. C. The first sentence points out that there seems to be no positive correlation between plate sensitivity to daylight and gaslight. The passage continues by saying that “in some instances, in fact”. This is leading into a contrasting statement from the first sentence, making option C the best answer. Answer option A is only correct for Carbutt transparencies, not for the plates in general. Answer B is incorrect as there is a clear and measurable difference between daylight and gaslight sensitivity for all the plates. Option D is incorrect as it does not contrast with the first sentence of the passage.
5. B. The correct answer must include the variances for different components of the gas. Heat units are not components of gas, but rather a measure of energy, and thus answers A, and C are incorrect. Answer option D incorrectly measures the highest and lowest measurements of the components, leaving only answer B as a correct option.
6. A. A careful reading of the graph shows that the evaporation on lakes Huron and Michigan is 66,754 which makes option A correct and the other options incorrect.
7. B. We learn in the first paragraph that the hottest part of the flame is about half an inch above the tip of the inner zone of the flame. This makes “luminous flame inner” our hotter option and “luminous flame outer” our cooler option. Based on this, we can see that the hotter option has higher outputs of nitrogen, march gas, acetylene, and hydrogen and lower outputs of water vapor, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. However, we do not have evidence of the impact of these outputs on air quality. This makes option B the best answer. The other answer options are all incorrect as they misunderstand either which one is hotter, or they assume the impact on the air quality without evidence.
8. A. We learn in the table that the nitrogenous fed (former) hens laid a total of 79 eggs and the carbonaceous fed (later) hens laid a total of 26.  The passage tells us that in the first and second periods the nitrogenous fed hens laid 43 and 25 eggs and the carbonaceous fed hens laid 20 and 6. 79-43-25=6 therefore in the third period the nitrogenous fed hens laid six eggs. 26-20-6=0 therefore in the third period the carbonaceous fed hens laid 0. This is best stated in answer option A.
9. D. We see in the table that in Great Britain the cost of living is 1200 shillings, or 60 pounds. In the United States, the cost of living is 1536.2 shillings, or 77 pounds, 16 shillings. We learn in the passage that wages are higher in Massachusetts than in Great Britain. This makes answer D the most logical conclusion. A that pays 60 pounds in Great Britain would likely pay more in the United States, but some of that advantage would be eaten away by the higher cost of living.
10. C.  Note the word “also” before the blank. In the previous sentence, the author pointed out a large discrepancy in the 6000 miles built in the U.S. compared to the only 1500 built in Europe. We now need a similar comparison for that “also” to make sense. This would mean that answers A and D are incorrect as they do not show a similarly large difference. Answer B is incorrect as it compares one European country to another instead of continuing the author’s comparison of all of Europe to the United States.





Sources:

All information and data are taken from or adapted from various editions of Scientific American and the supplements thereof. You can improve your reading skills by reading more of similar texts. Specific links for the information from each question can be found below.

1. https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/19180/pg19180-images.html
2. https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/19406/pg19406-images.html
3. https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/15193/pg15193-images.html
4. https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/13401/pg13401-images.html
5. https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/13401/pg13401-images.html
6. https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/13443/pg13443-images.html
https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/13443/pg13443-images.html
8. https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/13443/pg13443-images.html
9. https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/11735/pg11735-images.html
10. https://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/8504/pg8504-images.html

Digital SAT Writing Transitions Practice Questions

1. The following is an excerpt from The Dorrington Deed-box by Arthur Morrison:


As for Dorrington, he had his hundred pounds reward. But the bill for £10,000 he never presented. Why, I do not altogether know, unless he found that Mr. Mallows’s financial position, as he had hinted, was not altogether so good as was supposed.  __________ it was found among the notes and telegrams in this case in the Dorrington deed-box.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

A. In other words,
B. At any rate,
C. Whatever,
D. On the other hand,

2. The following is an excerpt from Sanders of the River, By Edgar Wallace:


The Hon. George Tackle had the good fortune to be the son of his father; otherwise, I am free to confess he had no claim to distinction.  __________ his father, being the proprietor of the Courier and Echo (with which are incorporated I don’t know how many dead and gone stars of the Fleet Street firmament), George had a “pull” which no amount of competitive merit could hope to contend with.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

A. But
B. While
C. So
D. Thus

3. The following is an excerpt from The Pathless Trail by Arthur O. Friel:


Sleep enveloped the huts. Snores and gurgles rose and fell. Tim himself, for the sake of effect, snored heartily at intervals, __________ his eyes never closed. Through his mosquito bar he could see only vaguely, but he knew any man walking from the crew’s quarters must cast a very visible shadow across that net, and to him the shadow would be as good a warning as a clear view of the substance. But the hours crept on, and no shadow came.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

A. and
B. though
C. since
D. for

4. The Following is an excerpt from Bones in London, By Edgar Wallace:


The Tibbetts-Jelf Lamp was something new in motor lamps. It was a lamp which had all the advantages of the old lamp, plus properties which no lamp had ever had before, and it had none of the disadvantages of any lamp previously introduced, and, __________ had no disadvantages whatsoever. So Jelf told Bones with great earnestness.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

A. however,
B. finally,
C. in fact,
D. therefore,

5. The following is an excerpt from The Keepers of The King’s Peace by Edgar Wallace:


The Wiggle, moreover, possessed many attributes which are denied to other small steamers. She had, __________  a Maxim gun on her tiny forecastle. She had a siren of unusual power and diabolical tone, she was also fitted with a big motor-horn, both of which appendages were Bones’s gift to his flagship.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?


A. on the other hand,
B. however,
C. completely,
D. for example

6. The following is an excerpt from Kidnapped by Robert Lois Stevenson:

I was abashed how to find expression for my thanks; but she was no less abashed at the thought of hearing them; begged us to lose no time and to hold our peace, saying (very properly) that the heart of our matter was in haste and silence; __________ what with one thing and another, she had set us on the Lothian shore not far from Carriden, had shaken hands with us, and was out again at sea and rowing for Limekilns, before there was one word said either of her service or our gratitude.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?


A. therefore,
B. because,
C. but,
D. and,

7. The following is an excerpt from Caves of Terror by Talbot Mundy


The tiny portions that melted and liquefied became full of motion, __________ the motion was never in one place for more than about a minute at a time; and wherever the motion had been the lump lost bulk, so that gradually the whole piece shrank and shrank.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

A. while
B. although
C. so
D. because

8. The following is an excerpt from The Prisoner of Zenda by Anthony Hope:

After that we called on Bertram Bertrand, a versifier of some repute and Paris correspondent to The Critic. He had a very comfortable suite of rooms, and we found some pleasant fellows smoking and talking. It struck me, __________ that Bertram himself was absent and in low spirits, and when everybody except ourselves had gone, I rallied him on his moping preoccupation.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

A. however,
B. on one hand,
C. therefore,
D. nevertheless,

9. The following is an excerpt from the introduction to She, by H. Rider Haggard:

That same evening my visit came to an end, and this was the last I saw or heard of “Charon” and “the Greek god” for many a long day. __________ I have never seen either of them from that hour to this, and do not think it probable that I shall. But a month ago I received a letter and two packets, one of manuscript, and on opening the first found that it was signed by “Horace Holly,” a name that at the moment was not familiar to me.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

A. While,
B. Therefore,
C. Indeed,
D. Nevertheless,

10. The following is an excerpt from The Lion of Petra by Talbot Mundy:

The beginning as concerns me was when I moved into quarters in Grim’s mess in Jerusalem. As a civilian and a foreigner I could not have done that, __________ if it had been a real mess; but Grim, who gets fun out of side-stepping all regulations, had established a sort of semi-military boarding-house for junior officers who were tired of tents, and he was too high up in the Intelligence Department for anybody less than the administrator to interfere with him openly.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

A. but,
B. in addition,
C. while,
D. of course,

Solutions

1. B.  The information before the blank is saying that the author doesn’t exactly know why Dorrington never cashed the 10,000-pound check. The sentence with the blank is saying that the check was found in his possession. The author is not repeating previous information, so answer A is incorrect. Answer C makes no logical sense. Answer D is incorrect because the author is not contrasting the two sentences. Instead, the author is offering more information about the check, making option B the best answer.

2. A. The general meaning of this passage is that George Tackle had no reason to be notable, except that his father was notable. This makes option A the best answer since we are contrasting the lack of importance of the son with the “pull” he gets from his father. Option B is incorrect as it makes the second sentence a fragment. Options C and D are incorrect as the author is not showing cause and effect. 

3. B. Here, the author is setting up a contrast. We learn that Tim is making snoring noises, but he is still watching through the mosquito netting for a shadow. Therefore, he isn’t actually asleep. The only answer option that shows the contrast between the snoring noises and his being awake is option B.

4. C. Notice the word “and” before the blank. This eliminates option A. Option B is incorrect as we are not placing things in order. Option D is incorrect as the author is not concluding. The author is offering additional information, making option C the best answer.

5. D. In this passage, the second sentence is showing an example of an attribute The Wiggle had which other small steamers did not have. This makes option D the only appropriate answer.

6. D. The author is offering more information here. The woman has refused thanks and set them on the shore. This makes option D the best answer. The author is not showing cause and effect, making A and B incorrect and is not showing contrast, making option C incorrect.

7. B. The sentence shows that the portions are full of motion. The author wants to contrast this with the motion never being regular or in one place. This contrast is best shown in answer B. Answer A leaves the sentence a fragment. Options C and D do not show contrast.

8. A. The context clue here is that they found “pleasant fellows” but Bertram was “in low spirits” these are two contrasting emotions, making “however” the best answer. Option B would need to be placed with the first item of contrast, not the second. Option C shows cause and effect, not contrast. Option D does not fit into the context of the sentence.

9. C. In this sentence, the author is adding more information to emphasize the information in the first sentence that “this was the last I saw or heard of [them] for many a long day”. This makes option C the best answer as it shows that what is coming next is additional information. Option A does not fit into the sentence structure of the second sentence. Option B shows cause and effect. Option D shows contrast.

10. D. The first sentence sets up that he could not do what he did. The second sentence explains why he could do that after all (by breaking rules). The keeping of the rules is to be assumed, thus “of course” is the best answer. The breaking of rules is not to be assumed. Options A, B, and C do not fit into the structure of the sentence.

Digital SAT Rhetorical Synthesis Practice Questions

1. While researching a topic a student has taken the following notes:

  • In Rome, there still remain ruins of the Temple of Apollo Palatinus which was constructed in the first century BCE.
  • In the late 1st century CE the temple underwent a restoration after being fire damaged in the Great Fire of Rome in 64 CE
  • The temple was almost completely destroyed in another fire in 363 CE
  • If you visit Rome today you will only be able to see the core of the temple’s podium and some other fragments which were excavated in the mid-1800s.

The student wants to educate visitors to Rome as to why they can’t see the entire temple today. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. Because of an excavation in the 1800s, parts of the temple including the podium, are visible to modern visitors to the site.
B. After the Great Fire of Rome in 64 CE the entire temple underwent a restoration so that it could continue being used.
C. The Temple of Apollo Palatinus was originally built over 2000 years ago.
D. After its nearly complete destruction in a fire in 363, the Temple of Apollo Palatinus was not restored, leaving only fragments.

2. While researching a topic a student has taken the following notes:

  • The Fountain and Tallman Museum is located in the historic Fountain-Tallman Soda Works building in Placerville California.
  • The building is unique in its construction as it has stone walls that are over two feet thick—originally designed to keep ice and other soda making equipment cool. The thick walls are why it still stands when most other buildings from that era have not survived.
  • In addition to being a soda water factory, the building was also used as a jail and an office space for a gas company.
  • In the late 1900s the building was donated to a local historical society and was set up as a museum of local history.

The student wants to introduce the historic Fountain-Tallman Soda Works building to an audience that has never heard of it before. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. The Fountain- Tallman Soda Works building is a historic building in Placerville California that was built as a soda water factory but has served the community in several capacities since its construction.
B. The Fountain-Tallman Soda Works building is currently a museum with walls that are over two feet thick.
C. The Fountain and Tallman Museum started with the donation of a building to a local historical society in the late 1900s.
D. The Fountain and Tallman Museum was originally built as a soda water factory, but does not remain a factory today.

3. While researching a topic a student has taken the following notes:

  • Balsamic Vinegar of Modena (BVM) and Traditional Balsamic Vinegar (TBV) are two different products with different standards.
  • BVM has lower standards, and is much less expensive, is often aged only briefly, and contains  some ingredients that are not traditional.  It is protected under the weak European protected geographical indication (PGI).
  • TBV is aged at least 12 years, but often much longer, and has stricter controls on ingredients as well as origin as it is regulated under the strong European protected designation of origin (PDO).
  • Neither PGI nor PDO are able to be enforced in the U.S. so if consumers want to purchase real balsamic vinegar, they must be careful to read the name and look for the PDO or PGI seal on the label.

The student wants to explain to readers in the United States the variety of goods they might see labeled as “balsamic vinegar” in the grocery store. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. Both BVM and TBV can be found in the United States, but only if a discerning shopper knows where to look.
B. Because PGI and PDO are not enforced in the United States, a wide range of products, from artificially dyed vinegar to authentic TBV and BVM, may be labeled as balsamic vinegar in American stores.
C. Authentic BVM and TBV both have strict quality controls at their points of origin in northern Italy. Shoppers can be confident of authenticity by looking for PDO and PGI seals.
D. BVM and TBV are both protected in some way, with BVM having lower standards and TBV having higher standards.

4. While researching a topic a student has taken the following notes:

  • As a type of antibody, Immunoglobulin G (IgG), binds with many pathogens in the body in order to protect the body from infections brought on by viruses, bacteria, and fungi, among others.
  • IgG is the most common antibody in blood circulation and makes up around 75% of serum antibodies in humans.
  • If doctors suspect certain conditions, they may measure a patient’s levels of IgG as a diagnostic tool.
  • IgG plays a key role in newborn immunity as infants inherit IgG from their mothers through both placenta while in utero and through breast milk once born.

The student wants to include in her essay a sentence that will highlight the importance of IgG to all humans. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. IgG makes up around 75% of the average human’s serum antibodies and plays a key role in protecting the body from a wide range of infections.
B. Infants receive IgG in multiple ways from their mothers, including through the placenta and through breast milk.
C. IgG levels are used by doctors occasionally as a diagnostic indicator for certain specific conditions.  
D. While important, IgG is not the only antibody that helps support immune reaction in humans who have been infected by a virus, bacteria, or fungi.

5. While researching a topic a student has taken the following notes:

  • Mary Quant was one of the designers who helped to define 1960’s style in the United States and Great Britain.
  • Quant specialized in youthful looks with bold colors, blocky shapes, and wild patterns, though her earlier work was a bit softer and more delicate than her later work.
  • While Quant claimed to have invented the mini-skirt, some people dispute this claim, saying that the mini-skirt was invented by one of several other designers or that it was not invented by any one person, but was rather the logical end point of a continuous trend of shorter hem lengths.
  • In addition to clothing, Quant designed headwear, household goods, and personal care items, like makeup.

The student would like to explain to designers already familiar with Quant the range of her designs. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. Quant designed not just clothes we now consider classic, like the mini skirt, but also tried her hand at designing household goods, hats, and makeup.
B. Quant had a distinctive style that changed slightly over the course of her career, moving from slightly more soft and delicate to wild patterns and colors.
C. Mary Quant helped shaped style in the 1960s with her design for the now famous miniskirt.
D. With the consistently shortening hemline as a general trend, Mary Quant showed her design skill by creating the mini-skirt, a now famous look.

6. While researching a topic a student has taken the following notes:

  • While China’s imperial era is often associated with Emperors, Empress Dowager Cixi who lived from 1835 until 1908 had effective rule over the country from 1861 until her death.
  • Cixi came to power when emperor Zianfeng died, leaving Cixi’s son to inherit the throne at age five.
  • Cixi schemed to overthrow other appointed regents and served as co-regent alongside another advisor Empress Dowager Ci’an for her son’s entire life, since he was seen as a weak ruler.
  • Upon her son’s death Cixi conspired to have her young nephew placed on the throne so that she could continue in her role as regent.

The student would like to explain how Cixi managed to remain regent for so long. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. Empress Dowager Cixi reigned as regent for more than 70 years, an impressive feat for any ruler, but most especially for a female ruler of the 19th century.
B. As one of the backbones of China’s imperial era, Empress Dowager Cixi is likely remembered as the longest reigning female monarch, though she was only technically the regent.
C. In order to ensure her power, Cixi overthrew other regents so that she could control the monarchy through her son.
D. Cixi reigned for over 70 years by first serving for regent for her son and then, after his death, scheming to have her nephew put on the throne so that she could continue as regent.

7. While researching a topic a student has taken the following notes:

  • The first woman to ever be granted membership in the Entomological Society, Cynthia Evelyn Longfield was a renowned entomologist who specialized in the study of dragonflies.
  • Born in 1896, Longfield served in the Army Service Corps in World War One. After the war she traveled extensively, collecting specimens for the Natural History Museum of London.
  • In World War Two she served in the Auxiliary Fire Service.
  • Later in life she was a cataloguer at the Natural History Museum and collected 38 species of butterflies on a trip to South America. Three of those species had never been seen before.

The student wants to emphasize Longfield’s dedication to public service. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. Longfield is best remembered for her trip to South America, on which she catalogued 3 species of dragonflies which had never been seen before.
B. As the first woman to be granted membership in the Entomological Society, Longfield is well remembered in certain circles for her pioneering work with dragonflies.
C. While she is remembered for her entomological work, Longfield served her country in both World Wars I and II first in the Army Service Corps and Later in the Auxiliary Fire Service.
D. Longfield once, in her job for the Natural History Museum, collected 38 species in one single trip to South America.


8. While researching a topic a student has taken the following notes:

  • Kepler-90 is a star around 2,000 light years away from earth in the Draco constellation. It’s planetary system is quite similar to ours, as was discovered by the Kepler mission in the early 21st century.
  • The Kepler mission was designed to discover planets that orbit their stars by measuring dips in brightness of the stars as the plants cross them.
  • Kepler-90 has 8 planets just like our solar system’s sun does, however, it is thought that several of the planets that orbit Kepler-90 do not rotate on their axes, leaving them half in the dark, much like Earth’s moon.
  • Kepler-90 cannot be seen with the naked eye from Earth.

The student wants to explain the purpose of the Kepler mission and what it discovered at Kepler-90. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. The Kepler mission measured the light coming from stars including Kepler-90—a star about 2,000 light years away from earth.
B. Designed to discover planets orbiting stars, one of the Kepler mission’s findings was the eight planets orbiting Kepler-90, some of them not turning on their axes.
C. Since Kepler-90 cannot be seen with the naked eye, it took a special mission, the Kepler mission, to discover its 8 orbiting planets.
D. The Kepler mission confirmed the presence of many planets by measuring dips in light coming from far distant stars.

9. While researching a topic a student has taken the following notes:

  • Yang Xiong was a Chinese author and philosopher of the early 1st century CE. He was well-known in his time in the Han dynasty.
  • Yang gained enough praise and acclaim, that he was summoned to imperial capital where he was an officer in charge or composing fu as well as poetry for the emperor.
  • Yang did not think that the nature of humanity was inherently bad or good, but rather, he philosophized that human nature was a mixture of both.
  • His most famous work, Exemplary Sayings, is remembered for his critique of his contemporaries for their overly elaborate writings and their seeming inability to address the greater moral issues of the day.  

A student wants to give an overview of the beliefs of Yang Xiong. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. As a Chinese philosopher of the early 1st century CE, Yang Xiong wrote for the emperor on a regular basis. His work was both poetry and fu as the situation demanded.
B. Exemplary Sayings is Yang Xiongs most well remembered work because  it contained criticisms of other writers.
C. Yang held that man was duel in nature, containing a mix of good and evil and that this and other philosophical concepts should be addressed in the writing of his time.
D. Yang Xiong shunned the elaborate writing of his contemporaries.

10. While researching a topic a student has taken the following notes:

  • In many building trades like woodworking, masonry, and metalworking, workers use what is known as a combination square for a multitude of situations.
  • The combination square is made up of a ruler, and one of may different heads that can be slid over or along the ruler. A worker might use a standard head, a protractor head, or a center finding head.
  • The modern combination square dates back to the 1970s and can be used with its standard head to make 90 degree markings, miter corners, check whether a surface is level, gauge depth, and other activities vital in building.
  • With other heads, the abilities of the combination square are much more complex.

A student wants to explain to a friend a situation in which a combination square with a standard head might be useful. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

A. The combination square can be used for a great many things, especially if the person using it has more than one head for the tool.
B. With a standard head, a combination square could be used in building to make sure walls are level and corners meet at exact right angles.
C. Woodworkers, masons, and metalworkers all use the combination head in their daily jobs.
D. Depending on the situation, a builder may switch out the heads of a combination square to complete different tasks.

Solutions

1. D. The question requires that the answer explain why the entire temple can’t be seen today. While the notes given do include information on an early fire, it also explains that the temple was restored after that first fire in 64 CE. That would point us to the second fire in 363 CE as the final destruction of the temple and the reason why it is not visible today, making answer option D the correct answer. Answer option A explains why parts are visible today, but not why the rest of the temple is not visible. Answer option B explains the earlier destruction prior to the restoration. Answer option C includes information that does not answer the question.

2. A. The question asks for a general introduction to the building for an audience that is completely unfamiliar with the building. This makes answer A the best option as it gives the best broad background for the building. Option B gives just one detail of the building, not an introduction. Option C gives an introduction to the museum, not the building. Option D gives the origin of the building, but no information as to the rest of its history or relevance today.

3. B. The question asks about the variety found on the stores in the U.S. The final note of the set indicates that, due to lack of protections, in addition to real BVM or TBV there are many knock off products in the U.S. This makes option B the best to answer the question. Option A does not explain the variety available beyond BVM and TBV. Option C explains how to find BVM and TBV, but not what else is on shelves. Option D explains the protections on BVM and TBV but not the variety of other goods available.

4. A. The question asks about the importance of IgG to all humans. Option A best explains that IgG plays a key role in protecting all humans from illnesses. Option B explains how infants get IgG, but not its role. Option C explains how it can be a useful diagnostic, but only for people with certain conditions, not for all humans. Option D implies that IgG is plays only a part in immunity and therefore does not highlight its importance to all humans.

5. A. The question asks for an answer that assumes the reader already knows something about Mary Quant and that explains her range beyond just fashion design. Answer A fulfills this prompt by explaining that she designed household goods, hats, and makeup. Option B is incorrect as it explains a slight and gradual change over time, not a wide range of designs. Option C is incorrect as it gives a general introduction to Quant, but does not explain the range of her designs. Option D is incorrect as it addresses just one of her designs instead of showing her range.

6. D. The question asks for an explanation of how Cixi managed to rule for so long as regent. Option D explains this the best by telling the reader that Cixi ruled not just during her son’s childhood, but also by placing another child on the throne after her son’s death. Options A and B are incorrect as they do not explain how she ruled for 70 years. Option C is incorrect as it explains how Cixi came to power, but not how she retained that power for 70 years.

7. C. The question asks for information on Longfield’s public service, not her entomological activities. This makes C the best option and A, B, and D incorrect.

8. B. The question asks for the purpose of the Kepler mission and what was discovered at Kepler-90. Option B is the best answer as it explains that Kepler was designed to discover planets orbiting stars (its purpose) and what it found at Kepler-90 (8 orbiting plants, some of which do not turn on their axes). Option A explains what Kepler did, but not what it discovered at Kepler-90. Option C explains why the Kepler mission was necessary, but not what its purpose was. Option D does not explain specifically what was discovered at Kepler-90.

9. C. The question asks about Yang Xiong’s beliefs. This is best summed up in option C. Option A explains his work. Option B explains why his work Exemplary Sayings is remembered. Option D explains his attitude toward his contemporaries.

10. B. The question asks for a situation in which a combination square with a standard head would be used. We learn in the notes that with a standard head, the combination square can be used to mark 90 degree (right) angles, miter corners, check for level surfaces, and gauge depth. This makes answer B the best option and the other answer incorrect.